Diabetes: The Basics Part TWO

This is Part Two of a series of three Posts. Part Two is a continuation of the FAQ about Type 2 Diabetes. Part Three will cover Gestational Diabetes.

Blog Nov. 1 stop

What causes type 2 diabetes?

Genes and environment can play a role in causing type 2 diabetes mellitus. To learn more please go to

https://2healthyhabits.wordpress.com/?s=Diabetes+Type-2%3A+The+Underlying+Causes.

What are the first warning signs of type 2 diabetes?

The “classic” signs of type 2 diabetes which lead people to see their doctor generally includes excessive thirst, frequent urination, blurred vision, numbness or tingling of extremities, weight gain and fatigue. However, these signs generally show up once someone has already developed diabetes. There are more subtle warning signs that can develop years earlier.

The most common early signs of type 2 diabetes can be fatigue and weight gain, but also surprisingly include symptoms of low blood sugar as well. Signs of low blood sugar generally develop when someone hasn’t eaten for a few hours, and include symptoms like nausea, light-headedness, severe hunger and irritability. This occurs due to a drop in blood sugar between meals, often caused by overproduction of insulin in people who have become insulin resistant. Interestingly, people can experience some of these symptoms, like hypoglycemia and irritability, before they even have a large elevation in their glucose or Hemoglobin A1c. If you are experiencing any of the symptoms listed, you should consider seeing your doctor and getting a blood test for diabetes.

How do I know if I have diabetes?

Type 2 diabetes is diagnosed in a number of ways. These include a fasting glucose of > or = 126 mg/dL, a hemoglobin a1c of 6.5% or greater, or elevated glucose on an oral glucose tolerance test. In addition, a random glucose of >200 is suggestive of diabetes.

However, there are a number of signs and symptoms that suggest type 2 diabetes and should make you consider getting a blood test. These include excessive thirst, frequent urination, blurred vision, numbness or tingling of extremities, weight gain and fatigue. Other possible symptoms include erectile dysfunction in men and irregular periods in women.

What are the symptoms of type 2 diabetes?

Symptoms of type 2 diabetes mellitus are as varied as they are unpleasant. If you notice any of the symptoms mentioned in this post, it would be advisable to seek medical attention.

For example, one might notice an increase in urination. A hallmark feature of type 2 diabetes is an elevated glucose (sugar) level in the blood. When blood glucose levels are high, the kidney struggles to filter the excess glucose out of the urine. The urine thus contains more glucose than it should, and this leads to higher volumes of fluid leaving the body through the urine. This is often accompanied by an increase in thirst.

Additionally, type 2 diabetes makes it difficult for the body’s organs to receive dietary fuel in the form of glucose. And when the body’s organs aren’t getting the energy they need to perform as they should, this can lead to fatigue and hunger.

Type 2 diabetes also makes it harder for the body to heal. This can lead to more frequent infections and slow-healing wounds.

Elevated blood glucose levels from type 2 diabetes can lead to blurry vision. Vision can improve as blood glucose levels decrease.

These particularly worrisome symptoms warrant seeking medical attention immediately:

  • very severe dehydration and
  • a significant impairment of one’s ability to think and speak clearly.

What are the symptoms of type 2 diabetes in women?

In general, men and women have similar symptoms of type 2 diabetes. These include excessive thirst, frequent urination, blurred vision, numbness or tingling of extremities, weight gain and fatigue. However, there are some additional symptoms in women that may signal possible type 2 diabetes. These include frequent vaginal yeast infections or urinary tract infections. High blood glucose levels make infections more common and difficult to treat. While there are obviously many possible cause for these infections, patients experiencing recurrent or severe infections should consider evaluation for diabetes.

Another frequent issue seen in women with prediabetes or type 2 diabetes is Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS).This syndrome is thought to be connected to insulin resistance, a key component of diabetes, and common symptoms of PCOS include irregular menstrual periods, acne, pelvic pain, and infertility.

In addition, it is important to note that women with a history of gestational diabetes during pregnancy have an increased chance of developing type 2 diabetes in the future. If you have a history of gestational diabetes and have any of the symptoms listed here, it is a good idea to have a blood test for diabetes.

What are the symptoms of type 2 diabetes in men?

In addition to the commonly discussed symptoms for both men and women, another issue discussed less frequently is erectile dysfunction.

How can you prevent type 2 diabetes?

One of the most important first steps one can take to prevent type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is to reach out to a primary care provider.

A growing body of evidence shows that a well-formulated ketogenic diet can improve and even reverse T2DM. The diet significantly lowers blood sugars. Please see the related post on the best diet for type 2 diabetes.

One medication, metformin, has been shown in multiple studies to be effective at preventing the onset of T2DM. Metformin is both inexpensive and without long-term safety concerns.

Learn more at https://blog.virtahealth.com/prevent-type-2-diabetes/

What foods cause type 2 diabetes?

There is scientific evidence that suggests that certain foods like refined grains and sugary beverages are associated (that is, they tend to go hand-in-hand) with an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus.

There is a strong association between obesity and developing type 2 diabetes, but not all obese people will develop diabetes.

Obesity, like type 2 diabetes, can be caused by any combination of a number of genetic and environmental factors. Diet and exercise can be modified to prevent obesity.

What is the best diet for type 2 diabetes?

The scientific evidence in support of a well-formulated ketogenic diet to improve the health of folks living with type 2 diabetes is so compelling that the American Diabetes Association and the European Association for the Study of Diabetes recently issued a consensus report in which they acknowledge the value of a low-carbohydrate diet to help people living with type 2 diabetes.

Can a ketogenic diet reverse type 2 diabetes?

Insulin resistance is the hallmark of type 2 diabetes and manifests as carbohydrate intolerance. Like other food intolerances, the most logical and effective approach to managing carbohydrate intolerance is to restrict sugars and starches to within the individual’s metabolic tolerance.

A well-formulated ketogenic diet can prevent and slow down progression of type-2 diabetes, and it can actually resolve all the signs and symptoms in many patients, in effect reversing the disease as long as the carbohydrate restriction is maintained.

Learn more about carbohydrate intolerance at https://2healthyhabits.wordpress.com/2019/10/18/underlying-causes-of-type-2-diabetes/

How do I manage my medications if I make dietary changes to improve my diabetes?

We strongly recommend that patients with type 2 diabetes consult a medical professional before making dietary changes. Changing your diet, particularly changing to the well-formulated ketogenic diet can be incredibly powerful in improving blood sugar and even reversing type 2 diabetes.

However, because of the rapid blood sugar and blood pressure improvements that are seen, it is very important that you have medical supervision while making dietary changes. This is particularly important in patients taking medications like insulin or sulfonylureas, which can cause dangerously low blood glucose.

In addition, newer diabetes medications such as SGLT-2 inhibitors, can lead to a dangerous condition known as “euglycemic diabetic ketoacidosis,” in which patients can have normal blood glucose but dangerous changes in the acidity of their blood.

In addition, due to the rapid improvements that are often seen in blood sugar, it is important to have close monitoring of your biomarkers. This can be difficult for most clinics to provide, but is part of the continuous remote monitoring that is part of the Virta treatment. They sometimes adjust medications multiple times in one day, and often need to be proactive in reducing medications to avoid dangerous low blood sugars.

Does cinnamon help treat type 2 diabetes?

Cinnamon has been extensively studied without showing consistent results.

Type 2 Diabetes Complications

What is diabetic neuropathy?

Elevated blood sugars can damage nerves, usually first in the legs and feet. Read more at https://blog.virtahealth.com/diabetic-neuropathy/

What is diabetic retinopathy?

Diabetic retinopathy can develop when a patient living with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has high blood sugars that damage the blood vessels in the retina. Read more at https://blog.virtahealth.com/diabetic-neuropathy/

Can I reverse diabetic neuropathy, nephropathy, or retinopathy with a ketogenic diet?

We have many anecdotes of reversal of neuropathy, retinopathy, and nephropathy in people with T2D following a well-formulated ketogenic diet but there are not objective data (i.e. published peer-reviewed studies) to provide evidence that this is true.  Learn more by watching the in this link https://blog.virtahealth.com/reverse-diabetic-neuropathy-nephropathy-retinopathy-keto/

What are diabetic foot problems?

There are many complications (problems) that can happen to the feet when a person is diagnosed with diabetes. These include problems with the nerves, problems with the blood vessels, and problems with healing. Read more at https://blog.virtahealth.com/diabetic-foot/

What is the treatment for diabetic foot problems?

Checking your feet on a daily basis and avoiding injuries to your feet are the best way to prevent diabetic foot problems. Keeping good control of your blood glucose, blood pressure, and cholesterol levels also helps slow the progression of nerve and blood vessel damage that causes diabetic foot problems. It is also best to have your feet checked by your physician or podiatrist (foot doctor) at least once a year

Read more at https://blog.virtahealth.com/treatment-diabetic-foot/

The source of this information is the Virta Health website. Here is the link, please copy and paste it into your address bar

https://blog.virtahealth.com/diabetes-faq/?fbclid=IwAR2moJQwFn_V-SZbYAbxBGoWfnL-cS42Hj2ShZk7wwNWbjKl19wPgkoYzc0

I invite you to Follow my Blog, Facebook or be added to my email distribution list. My focus is to maximize my physical performance and mental clarity, body composition, and most importantly overall health with a wholesome diet and exercise.

 I will bring you compelling articles on Ketogenic and GAPS diets, the Super Slow High-Intensity Exercise Program and supplements.

To follow my Blog, please click the Follow button to receive an email when the next posting is available. Hint: You may have to click the Accept and Close button before follow is available.

I thrive on feedback. Please let me know you are interested in the content by clicking Like, Commenting or sending me a message or email about the Post.

If you wish to contact me by Email, please email lpolstra@bell.net using this form.

May you Live Long Healthy.

Yours truly,

Lydia Polstra

Email: lpolstra@bell.net

Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/2healthyhabits/

Blog: https://2healthyhabits.wordpress.com

Disclaimer: The content of this email or Post is not intended for the treatment or prevention of disease, nor as a substitute for medical treatment, nor as an alternative to medical advice. Use of recommendations is at the choice and risk of the reader.

Diabetes: The Basics Part One

This is Part One of a series of three Posts. Part Two will cover more questions about Type 2 Diabetes. Part Three will cover Gestational Diabetes.

Blog Nov. 1 stop

What causes high blood sugar?

Many things can cause high blood sugar, but what we eat plays the biggest and most direct role in elevating blood sugar. When we eat carbohydrates, our body converts those carbohydrates into glucose, and this can play a role in raising blood sugar. Protein, to a certain degree, in high amounts can also raise blood sugar levels. Fat does not raise blood sugar levels. Stress leading to an increase in the hormone cortisol can also raise blood sugar levels.

What’s the difference between type 1 and type 2 diabetes?

Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune condition that results in the body’s inability to produce insulin. People who suffer from Type 1 diabetes must be on insulin in order to keep glucose levels within normal limits.

Type 2 diabetes is a disease in which either the body is able to produce insulin but is not able to produce enough or the body does not respond to the insulin that is being produced (known as insulin resistance). People with type 2 diabetes must be on a low carbohydrate diet to keep their diabetes from worsening.

What should your fasting blood glucose be?

A fasting blood sugar should be less than 100 in order to be considered normal.  A fasting blood sugar of >100 to 125 is consistent with prediabetes.  Fasting blood sugar levels of 126 or greater is diagnostic of diabetes.

If your fasting blood glucose is consistent with prediabetes or type 2 diabetes, we recommend that you speak with your physician.

What is diabetic ketoacidosis?

Diabetic ketoacidosis (or DKA) is a serious medical condition that can result from very high levels of ketones in the blood. If it is not recognized and treated right away, then it can lead to a coma or even death. Because it is such a serious condition, a person who develops diabetic ketoacidosis is usually admitted to the hospital for treatment.

This condition occurs when the body’s cells are unable to use glucose for energy, and the body begins to break down fat for energy instead. Ketones are produced when the body breaks down fat, and very high levels of ketones can make the blood extremely acidic. The acidity can potentially cause coma and death.

People with type 1 diabetes are at risk of developing diabetic ketoacidosis if they do not take their insulin, if they do not eat, or if they become sick for other reasons (such as an infection). It is very unusual for people with type 2 diabetes to develop diabetic ketoacidosis.

Ketosis vs. ketoacidosis: What is the difference?

Ketosis: Endogenous ketones are known to be safe at physiologic levels. It has long been known that ketones are an effective alternate metabolic fuel and recent studies have shown them to be potent epigenetic and hormonal signaling molecules as well. In nutritional ketosis, serum ketones range from 0.5 to 5 mM. This is the body’s normal state of lipolysis (breaking down of fats) that occurs when carbohydrates are avoided.

Ketoacidosis:In stark contrast to this normal physiology of ketosis, pathologic ketoacidosis manifests with serum levels ketone levels of 15-25 mM (i.e., three- to ten-fold higher than in nutritional ketosis). Lipolysis is exquisitely regulated, so it is exceedingly rare for a patient with normal pancreatic beta cell function to enter ketoacidosis.

How does Metformin treat prediabetes and type 2 diabetes?

The mechanism of action of metformin is not fully understood. It appears to reduce glucose production in the liver, although there is now evidence that other factors may also play a role.

What is type 1 diabetes?

Type 1 diabetes is a condition where the body does not produce insulin.

What is insulin? Insulin is a hormone that is needed for the body to move glucose from the blood into the body’s cells. All of the organs in the body, including the brain, the heart, and the lungs, are made of cells. These cells use glucose for energy, which is why it is important for the glucose to move from the bloodstream into the cells.

The lack of insulin production in type 1 diabetes is usually caused by a problem with the pancreas. Type 1 diabetes is considered to be a permanent condition when it is diagnosed.

Prediabetes

What are the signs and symptoms of prediabetes?

Prediabetes is considered to be one of the most insidious precursors to diabetes because it may not have any signs or symptoms. This is why it is so important to do diagnostic blood tests checking a fasting glucose or hemoglobin A1c (Hba1c) test to establish a diagnosis of prediabetes. Many people who have prediabetes do not have any symptoms. By the time symptoms occurs, the diagnosis has usually already progressed to diabetes. There are some rare situations in which an individual can present with diabetes-related complications such as a retinal bleed, neuropathy or even a stroke, while only having a diagnosis of prediabetes.

What is the best diet for prediabetes?

A low carbohydrate diet is the ideal diet for prediabetes. This is because prediabetes occurs when glucose levels start to rise and the body produces insulin to try and lower the glucose levels. If the body cannot produce enough insulin or if the insulin level that the body is producing is not enough to meet the demands of the high glucose load, then glucose levels continue to rise.

How do you reverse prediabetes?

Prediabetes can be reversed by following a low carbohydrate diet.

Once glucose levels are lowered with a low carbohydrate diet, the body’s demand for insulin also goes down. As insulin levels are lowered due to lowered glucose levels, this will then be reflected in lab results such as a normal HbA1c or fasting glucose. Once Hba1c or fasting glucose has been normalized, then one can say that the prediabetes has been put into remission or reversed.

To learn more please read Reversing Diabetes 101 by Dr. Sarah Hallberg. Here is the link https://2healthyhabits.wordpress.com/2018/10/12/reversing-diabetes-101-with-dr-sarah-hallberg-the-truth-about-carbs-blood-sugar-and-reversing-type-2-diabetes/

Dr. Hallberg describes how a low carbohydrate diet can be an effective treatment for insulin resistance in this video.

What is the usual treatment for prediabetes?

Some providers may prescribe Metformin to patients who suffer from prediabetes for some time and are unable to make the dietary changes to reverse their prediabetes, yet are at high risk for developing diabetes.

Many patients who receive a diagnosis of prediabetes will also be told to lose weight with diet and exercise. Weight loss also plays a role in reversing prediabetes; however, the mechanism by which prediabetes is reversed is related to lowering insulin levels, and lowering insulin levels can help reduce weight.

Can prediabetes be reversed permanently?

Prediabetes can be reversed through the dietary changes outlined here. However, it is important to understand that if someone eats a low carbohydrate diet and reverses their prediabetes but then begins eating carbohydrates again in the future, the prediabetes will return.They must eat a low carbohydrate diet lifelong in order to reverse prediabetes and keep it permanently reversed.

The source of this information is the Virta Health website. Here is the link, please copy and paste it into your address bar

https://blog.virtahealth.com/diabetes-faq/?fbclid=IwAR2moJQwFn_V-SZbYAbxBGoWfnL-cS42Hj2ShZk7wwNWbjKl19wPgkoYzc0

I invite you to Follow my Blog, Facebook or be added to my email distribution list. My focus is to maximize my physical performance and mental clarity, body composition, and most importantly overall health with a wholesome diet and exercise.

 I will bring you compelling articles on Ketogenic and GAPS diets, the Super Slow High-Intensity Exercise Program and supplements.

 To follow my Blog, please click the Follow button to receive an email when the next posting is available. Hint: You may have to click the Accept and Close button before follow is available.

I thrive on feedback. Please let me know you are interested in the content by clicking Like, Commenting or sending me a message or email about the Post.

If you wish to contact me by Email, please email lpolstra@bell.net using this form.

May you Live Long Healthy.

Yours truly,

Lydia Polstra

Email: lpolstra@bell.net

Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/2healthyhabits/

Blog: https://2healthyhabits.wordpress.com

Disclaimer: The content of this email or Post is not intended for the treatment or prevention of disease, nor as a substitute for medical treatment, nor as an alternative to medical advice. Use of recommendations is at the choice and risk of the reader.

Inflammation, Nutritional Ketosis, Type 2 Diabetes and Keto-Immune Modulation

Nutritional ketosis has anti-inflammatory and immune-modulating effects that are as potent as the most powerful drugs. This explains how a well-formulated ketogenic diet reverses type 2 diabetes, pre-diabetes, and metabolic syndrome.

Inflammation enables our bodies to recognize and respond to infection and injury. Having too weak of an inflammatory response leaves us prone to infection or impaired healing. But having too great of a response, or one that remains over-active for too long, puts us at risk for a form of chronic injury that underlies type 2 diabetes, coronary heart disease, many common cancers, and Alzheimer’s disease.

This balance between too little and too much inflammation is regulated by a number of circumstances including our genetic inheritance, toxins in the environment, and by many components of our diet.

Currently, we have a host of different drug classes designed to modulate inflammation, but safely managing their dose and duration of use requires professional vigilance to avoid dangerous side effects.

In the past decade, nutritional ketosis has emerged as a potent modulator of inflammation. And, unlike drugs that typically target just one aspect of the body’s immune response, keto-immuno-modulation (KIM) seems to work evenly to balance the anti-inflammatory effect in a safe, sustainable and surprisingly potent way without the serious side effects that characterize most pharmaceuticals.

Measuring Inflammation Levels

High-normal white blood cell count (WBC) levels as well as another test reflective of inflammation in the body called C-reactive protein (CRP) have been shown to also predict the development of type 2 diabetes, many common forms of cancer, and probably Alzheimer’s.

Complexity of Inflammation at a Glance

When there is too much inflammation a class of disorders called auto-immune disease can occur and the body’s activated defenses attack some of its own organs, causing conditions like rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, psoriasis, and type 1 diabetes. These immune disorders can result in an increased risk of heart disease, as are people with type 2 diabetes.

Drugs that Reduce Inflammation

Older, established drugs, like aspirin, tend to have more general modes of action and a broader spectrum of side effects. Recent pharmaceutical research has moved to target specific enzymes, bioactive molecules, or white blood cell types involved in inflammation to try to reduce side effects, but by focusing on just one single step in the complex cascade of the inflammation/immune system, there is a strong tendency to distort this system rather than reduce the inflammatory effect in a balanced manner.

The risks associated with chronic use of a variety of anti-inflammatory drugs often outweigh the desired benefits.

One example, when aspirin is used routinely in people without known heart disease (primary prevention), fatal hemorrhage is significantly increased.

Blog June 21 keep.png

Dietary Anti-inflammatory Treatments

A natural form of vitamin E – gamma-tocopherol (rather than alpha-tocopherol) has potent anti-inflammatory and oxidative stress lowering properties when used alone or in combination with the omega-3 fatty acid DHA.

Weight loss itself has been shown to reduce inflammation, and it appears that the greater the weight loss the larger the anti-inflammatory effect. This could be attributable to a reduction in the amount of very inflammatory belly fat, and/or a result of some patients being in nutritional ketosis.

Beta-hydroxybutyrate has potent regulatory effects on inflammation

Among the many ‘nutritional factors’ with potential anti-inflammatory properties, the ketone beta-hydroxybutyrate (BOHB) is emerging as both highly potent and uniquely safe as a long-term treatment for inflammation. When in the physiologically normal range that is seen with nutritional ketosis, BOHB activates a number of different genes that protect our cells from oxidative stress and inflammation.

Reactive oxygen species (ROS), aka ‘free radicals’ appear to be connected to inflammation. NSAIDs can’t block them. BOHB prevents this whole class of pro-inflammatory compounds from being created in the first place.

Please see the original Virta Post for the diagramof the contrasting effects of diets containing carbohydrate-plus-protein totals above 30% (thus suppressing ketogenesis) and a ketogenic diet on down-stream inflammatory pathways regulated by BOHB.

Upon starting a well-formulated ketogenic diet, the fatty acid most commonly attacked by ROS, called arachidonic acid, promptly increases. Much less AA is being destroyed by ROS when the body is in nutritional ketosis, therefore less needs to be made in order to maintain optimum membrane levels of this important essential fatty acid.

The level of AA in muscle membrane is strongly correlated with insulin sensitivity thus offering an explanation for the prompt improvement in insulin sensitivity upon initiation of a ketogenic diet.

Clinical Studies Demonstrating Reduced Inflammation

In a randomized trial comparing two weight loss diets – one ketogenic and the other low fat, high carbohydrate – the ketogenic diet demonstrated much greater anti-inflammatory effects after 12 weeks. Additionally, in our Virta/IUH study of patients with type 2 diabetes, both WBC count and C-reactive protein (CRP) were dramatically reduced in the ketogenic diet group compared to the usual care group at 1 and 2-year follow-up. In particular, the reduction in CRP in the ketogenic diet group at 1 year was comparable in magnitude (35-40%) to what is seen with the most potent statin drug.But unlike the statin, which appears to be primarily focused on CRP and has no effect on WBC count, nutritional ketosis addresses both, providing a more balanced effect on the network of interacting bioactive components influencing inflammation.

Perhaps, nutritional ketosis should be considered the new metabolic normal for people with diseases associated with or caused by chronic inflammation.

This Post has been condensed from Inflammation, Nutritional Ketosis, Type 2 Diabetes and Keto-Immune Modulation by Stephen Phinney, MD, PhD, Bailey, Ph.D., Jeff Volek, PhD, RD January 3, 2019 https://blog.virtahealth.com/ketone-supplements/https://blog.virtahealth.com/inflammation-ketosis-diabetes/More scientific information and Citations of the supporting studies are included in the Virta post.

Not sure what the Ketogenic diet is? Please read, What is the Ketogenic Diet? , in my Blog https://2healthyhabits.wordpress.com/2018/02/02/what-is-the-ketogenic-diet/

 I invite you to Follow my Blog, Facebook or be added to my email distribution list. My focus is to maximize my physical performance and mental clarity, body composition, and most importantly overall health with a wholesome diet and exercise.

 I will bring you compelling articles on Ketogenic and GAPS diets, the Super Slow High-Intensity Exercise Program and supplements.

To follow my Blog, please click the Follow button to receive an email when the next posting is available. Hint: You may have to click the Accept and Close button before follow is available.

I thrive on feedback. Please let me know you are interested in the content by clicking Like, Commenting or sending me a message or email about the Post.

If you wish to contact me by Email, please email lpolstra@bell.net using this form.

May you Live Long Healthy.

Yours truly,

Lydia Polstra

Email: lpolstra@bell.net

Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/2healthyhabits/

Blog: https://2healthyhabits.wordpress.com

Disclaimer: The content of this email or Post is not intended for the treatment or prevention of disease, nor as a substitute for medical treatment, nor as an alternative to medical advice. Use of recommendations is at the choice and risk of the reader.