Avoid ALL Keto Side Effects

We will learn how to avoid all keto side effects. Many people are afraid of experiencing the keto flu or other side effects when going on a ketogenic diet. However, if you start on the healthy version of keto from the beginning, you should not experience any adverse side effects.

If you do the Healthy Keto plan you should not have effects. Here is one of the Healthy Keto videos https://2healthyhabits.wordpress.com/2021/02/05/how-to-start-keto-correctly-for-beginners/

Here Are The Symptoms And Remedies For Common Keto Side Effects:

Continue reading “Avoid ALL Keto Side Effects”

KICK ‘Keto-flu,’ ‘Atkins-flu,’ and ‘adrenal fatigue’

Most of the symptoms that the internet community attributes to ‘Keto-flu,’ ‘Atkins-flu,’ and ‘adrenal fatigue’, insomnia, anxiety, and slow recovery after exercise can be cured by a modest daily supplement of one essential nutrient – sodium (aka salt).

There is no science linking carbohydrate restriction and/or nutritional ketosis to impaired adrenal function (i.e., inadequate cortisol or adrenaline production).

To avoid confusion, we need to differentiate between ‘sodium depletion’ – which triggers the renin/aldosterole pathwaythat reduces sodium excretion – and simple dehydration. Dehydration triggers thirst, which stimulates water consumption. But water consumption alone cannot reverse the symptoms of sodium depletion. Without enough sodium in the body, no amount of water intake can maintain normal volume in the circulation. Dehydration by itself tends to be self-correcting. Sodium depletion are symptoms less specific.

Sodium – Essential But Still Controversial

Sodium.png

Sodium has been recognized for thousands of years as an essential mineral for human well-being and function, but the optimum level of intake for humans remains highly controversial. Sodium intake has been linked to increased blood pressure in about 25% of the general population, and given the strong association between hypertension and cardiovascular disease, the assumption has been that we all should consume less sodium to reduce our heart-attack risk. In other words, we are all told to limit our salt intakes because this is assumed to be benign for most of us and life-saving for the minority with what is called ‘salt-sensitive hypertension.’

We must question this one-size-fits-all recommendation. Why? Because no one has bothered to do the obvious study in which people with normal blood pressure restrict their salt intakes for years at a time to see if this improves their overall health, or at least does them no harm.

The Salt/Sodium Adrenal-Hormone Connection

Eat no salt for more than a few weeks and you die. Don’t eat quite enough salt long term and you will develop symptoms that are the same as those described for ‘adrenal fatigue’, such as weakness, fatigue or low energy, headache, nausea, vomiting, muscle cramps or spasms, confusion and irritability.

Sodium is an essential mineral found in your blood, specifically in your serum, and in the extra-cellular fluid that surrounds all of the body’s cells. Its level in the blood is guarded by the actions of both your kidneys and adrenal glands. Eat too much salt and your kidneys accelerate its excretion.

Eat too little and your adrenals make a hormone called aldosterone that causes your kidneys to conserve sodium, but in doing so they are physiologically obligated to simultaneously waste potassium. Wasting too much potassium is not good because your muscles, heart, and nerves need to contain the right amount of potassium to work properly.

The reduced amount of sodium available in the circulation that triggers the adrenal gland to increase production of aldosterone also increases adrenal production of the stress hormone cortisol and the fight-or-flight hormone adrenaline. Increased cortisol and adrenaline levels are stress hormones that are potent impediments of healthy sleep.

Bottom line: salt, potassium, adrenaline, and cortisol are intimately connected; there is a clear relationship between inadequate dietary sodium and the purported signs of ‘adrenal fatigue.’

How Nutritional Ketosis Affects Your Sodium Needs

With adaptation to nutritional ketosis over a number of weeks, many basic functions of the body undergo profound changes:

  • Fat (and ketones made from fat) replaces glucose as the primary fuel
  • Sensitivity to multiple hormones, including insulin and thyroid hormones, improves
  • The kidneys switch from retaining sodium to rapidly excreting it, (normal sodium metabolism with nutritional ketosis).

For those who are prone to retain sodium (e.g., causing bloating, high blood pressure, congestive heart failure, edema/ankle swelling), this accelerated sodium excretion with nutritional ketosis is a blessing. But once any excess sodium and water have been cleared from the body in the first few weeks of a ketogenic diet, a new balance of sodium intake to sodium excretion then has to occur so that adequate blood circulation (aka, circulating volume) can be maintained. However if, in this keto-adapted state, dietary sodium is restricted, your brain and kidneys signal your adrenals to increase aldosterone and cortisol. What this means is that a combination of nutritional ketosis plus salt restriction leads to adrenal stress.

   Nutritional ketosis + salt restriction = adrenal stress

Research Linking Ketogenic Diets to Adrenal Stress

Despite the hundreds of published studies of humans on ketogenic diets lasting as long as 2 years, there is no credible scientific evidence for adrenal damage or fatigue.

Research Showing Normal Blood Cortisol During Ketogenic Diets

There is just one paper showing that serum cortisol levels remained normal in 12 men given a well-formulated ketogenic diet for 6 weeks (Volek, 2002).

Why It Is Safe to Recommend Adding Salt to a Ketogenic Diet

First,since nutritional ketosis accelerates sodium excretion by the kidneys, whatever risk might be associated with too much sodium at any one level of salt intake would be less during ketosis than when eating a high carb intake. Stated another way, a high carbohydrate intake suppresses the body’s natural ability to excrete sodium and thus reduces a person’s ‘salt tolerance.’ Insulin is known to be involved in renal sodium metabolism.

The second important point is found in a recently published study that threatens to derail the whole anti-salt crusade. An international group of scientists collected urine samples from over 100,000 adults in 17 countries and then observed their health status for 4 years (O’Donnell 2014). They reported that people consuming less than 4 grams of sodium per day had a sharply increasing risk of death, almost doubling when they got down to 2 grams/day of sodium. In contrast, with higher sodium intakes, the risk of death rose very slowly beginning with intakes above 6 grams/day.  For example, as shown in the diagram below, mortality risk was increased by only 15% at 8 grams/day.

See the Chart: ** Estimated sodium excretion and risk of death from any cause

Blog - Sept. 27 chart.png

Optimum Sodium Intake During Nutritional Ketosis

Virta’s recommended sodium intake for most people during a well-formulated ketogenic diet is based upon the amount needed to avoid the symptoms of ‘Atkins flu’ or ‘adrenal fatigue’ is 5 grams per day (3 grams in your food, 2 grams from broth/bouillon).

There are still variations between individuals that necessarily modify this advice.

  • People with high blood pressure or fluid retention that persists after keto-adaptation, and particularly if they are taking a diuretic medication, should not increase their sodium intake above 3 grams per day until these symptoms are resolved and the diuretic medication stopped.
  • People routinely taking NSAID medications like ibuprofen (Motrin, Advil) or (Aleve, Naprosyn) are more ‘sodium sensitive’ because these drugs block salt excretion by the kidneys and raise blood pressure.
  • Heavy physical exercise in the heat will cause increased sodium loss in sweat, which can increase one’s daily sodium requirement above the 5-gram level.

And finally, as always, it is important to distinguish between grams of sodium and grams of salt.

    Salt and sodium are not the same.

    1 teaspoon of salt = 5 grams of salt = 2.3 grams of sodium (the rest is chloride)

High quality studies published by Virta and others continues to lead us to the scientifically correct view: nutritional ketosis is good for you. In particular, given the emerging view of ketones as both a fuel and beneficial epigenetic signal (arising from nongenetic influences on gene expression), there is unique therapeutic value to nutritional ketosis. And all that is needed to capture these benefits is to supply the  daily salt intake required to maintain an optimum balance of sodium and potassium in the body.

    Ask yourself this question: if nutritional ketosis has been shown to markedly increase my defense against oxidative stress, and it also makes mice and worms live 13-26% longer, why would I give up these advantages just so I could eat sugar and refined carbs?

This Post has been condensed from: Sodium, Nutritional Ketosis, and Adrenal Function

By Stephen Phinney, MD, PhD, Jeff Volek, PhD, RD, Citations for scientific studies.

https://blog.virtahealth.com/sodium-nutritional-ketosis-keto-flu-adrenal-function/

I invite you to Follow my Blog, Facebook or be added to my email distribution list. My focus is to maximize my physical performance and mental clarity, body composition, and most importantly overall health with a wholesome diet and exercise. 

I will bring you compelling articles on Ketogenic and GAPS diets, the Super Slow High-Intensity Exercise Program and supplements.

 To follow my Blog, please click the Follow button to receive an email when the next posting is available. Hint: You may have to click the Accept and Close button before follow is available.

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May you Live Long Healthy.

Yours truly,

Lydia Polstra

Email: lpolstra@bell.net

Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/2healthyhabits/

Blog: https://2healthyhabits.wordpress.com

Disclaimer: The content of this email or Post is not intended for the treatment or prevention of disease, nor as a substitute for medical treatment, nor as an alternative to medical advice. Use of recommendations is at the choice and risk of the reader.

Managing Potassium and Sodium On a Ketogenic Diet

A well-formulated ketogenic diet (WFKD) requires real food choices and preparation to maintain an optimum potassium intake.

Blog - Sept. 20 picture.

The sodium and potassium management by the kidneys and the changes in sodium handling during nutritional ketosis is makes this especially important.

Potassium and Mortality in the Balance

Potassium is the positively charged ion (aka electrolyte) that is predominate in the fluid inside all of the body’s cells, while sodium plays a matching role in the fluid surrounding our cells – including blood plasma. Keeping the two of them in balance is involves multiple hormones and organs, particularly the kidneys.

In order for nerves and muscles to function, the concentrations of positively charged potassium (K+) and sodium (Na+) have to be essentially equal across the cell membranes. If either this balance, or the in-and-out flow of these two electrolytes is impaired, nerves and muscles don’t work properly, endangering health and even life itself.

Because part of sodium’s role in the plasma is to maintain adequate circulation, it has been well characterized as necessary for normal blood flow. And in the case of high blood pressure, it is tempting to conclude that one just needs to restrict sodium intake to get it to come back down. While there is some truth to this (for people with salt-sensitive hypertension), for most people with high blood pressure, it involves the appropriate balance between these two electrolytes rather than a focus on the intake of sodium in isolation.

Recently, large studies have measured the actual amounts of sodium in a person’s urine. The most definitive results to date are from the massive international PURE study reported by O’Donnell et al. In this study, they collected urine from 102,000 people in 17 countries and then monitored health and mortality for 4 years. The lowest mortality was seen in people consuming 5 grams per day, which is about twice the current US recommended guideline for healthy adults. For sodium intakes substantially above or below this value, the associated mortality rates rise, generating a U-shaped curve.

See The Estimated Sodium Excretion chart below. *

Blog - Sept 20 chart 1

But the urinary potassium data from the PURE Study (See The Roles of Vegetables and Broth in Reducing Risk of Death chart below) tell a very different story. While low levels of potassium excretion are clearly associated with increased mortality risk, increasing levels in the urine up to 3-4 grams per day correlate with reduced risk. And in particular, the associated mortality at 1 gram per day is about double that seen at 3 grams per day. For this reason, we recommend incorporating real foods into a WFKD providing 3-4 grams per day of potassium.

See the Roles Of Vegetables And Broth In Reducing Risk Of Death chart below **

Blog - Sept 20 chart 2

The Relationship Between Sodium and Potassium Intakes and Urinary Excretion

Almost all of the sodium we eat gets absorbed, and then about 90% of that comes out in our urine. Therefore, urinary sodium is an accurate reflection of our dietary intake.

However, this relationship between dietary intake and urinary output is not quite as good for potassium. In most people, about 75% of dietary potassium is excreted in the urine. Thus, in the studies linking urinary potassium excretion to health a correction factor of about 1.3 should be applied. This means that in order to have 2 grams of potassium come out in the urine, one would need to consume 2.6 grams in the diet, and similarly to have 3 grams in the urine would require about 4 grams of dietary intake.

Practical Health Implications of Dietary Potassium

An important point to note here is that processing of meat to create luncheon meat, hot dogs, or bacon removes much of the potassium originally associated with that protein source and therefore should be restricted. In addition, if unprocessed protein sources are boiled or stewed, some of the potassium they contain comes out in the broth. Thus they should be prepared and served such that the broth or sauce is consumed to get the full benefit of their electrolytes and minerals.

Official Dietary Potassium Guidelines

The great majority of the population eats far less than the current estimated Adequate Intake value of 4.7 grams.

The reason it is only an estimate is because when dietary sodium is restricted, the kidneys tend to excrete more potassium to maintain the balance. This process is regulated by a series of hormones, with the main one being the stress hormone aldosterone. On average a sodium-restricted diet given to people with normal blood pressure increases this stress hormone more than 3-fold.

Getting Enough Potassium with a WFKD

From what we currently know about potassium needs for someone getting adequate sodium on a WFKD, 3 to 4 grams per day, appears to be an appropriate target to provide the necessary amount of potassium for health-related benefits.

This is an amount that is achievable with real foods.To begin, the right choices of protein that are prepared correctly will provide the first gram. On average, non-starchy vegetables that are consumed raw, sautéed or steamed contain about 200 mg per standard serving, so 4-5 servings of vegetables per day will provide the second gram. Nuts and seeds vary in their potassium content but range from 100-300 mg per ounce (oz), so 2 oz per day moves the scale closer to the 3 g per day optimum target.

Broth

The amount of potassium in home-made broth will vary depending upon how much meat remains on the bones used to prepare the broth. Typically, a pound of chicken carcass or meaty beef bones used to make a quart of broth will contain 200-300 mg of potassium per cup.

Technical Information on the Regulation of Electrolyte Balance

It is known that both total fasting and a ketogenic diet lead to an accelerated sodium excretion that increases water and salt loss through the urine. If this lost sodium is not replaced, the kidneys will reabsorb sodium. This process comes at the price of increased potassium excretion.

With consistent loss of potassium and/or chronically low intake of potassium the body will attempt to correct via the release of intracellular potassium from skeletal muscle.

It is clear that maintaining sufficient sodium and potassium intakes from the diet serves a number of important functions: potential mitigation of risk for cardiac events, preservation of plasma volume and muscle mass, and prevention or reduction of symptoms of the ‘keto- flu’.

The fail-safe endocrine system responsible for the tight regulation of electrolytes is commonly referred to as the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS). When plasma sodium levels are low (an intake of less than 3 grams per day), when blood potassium levels are significantly elevated (hyperkalemia), or when there is a notable reduction in blood pressure, RAAS is activated.

The cost for frequent RAAS activation is increased oxidative stress, increased vascular damage, measurable dyslipidemia * and potential sleep and mood disturbances.

Dyslipidemia * is elevation of plasma cholesterol, triglycerides (TGs), or both, or a low HDL cholesterol level that contributes to the development of atherosclerosis. Sourcehttps://www.merckmanuals.com/en-ca/professional/endocrine-and-metabolic-disorders/lipid-disorders/dyslipidemia

This compensatory activity of RAAS as well as increased sympathetic nervous system activity that together work to maintain electrolyte levels helps explain why we typically do not see a large decrease in blood pressure when sodium is restricted in most patients. In those who do not have salt-sensitive hypertension, these systems appear to adjust to dietary intake and manipulate sodium, potassium and fluid levels in order to maintain a person’s blood pressure.

The important role of potassium in muscle function and sodium in maintaining plasma volume are added considerations for individuals who exercise or engage in activity that results in a large volume of sweat loss. Due to the loss of Na+ and K+ in sweat, these circumstances may require additional electrolyte replacement in order to maintain performance, especially for those following a ketogenic way of eating. A good rule of thumb is about ½ tsp of salt 30 minutes prior to exercise and if exercise is performed at a relatively-high intensity in a hot environment, an additional ½ tsp of salt each hour may be warranted.

 For better health and well-being on a WFKD consume the recommended amounts of the electrolytes, sodium 3-5 g and potassium 3-4 g per day, will help support overall health as well as the success and sustainability of nutritional ketosis.

Talk to your doctor about your sodium and potassium needs, if you are taking a diuretic medication (aka, a water pill), if you have high blood pressure, if you have any impairment in kidney function, or if you have limited heart function (such as congestive heart failure).

This Post has been condensed fromThe Importance of Managing Potassium and Sodium as Part of a Ketogenic Diet by Stephen Phinney, MD, PhD, Jeff Volek, PhD, RD. Please see the original post for the scientific citations.

https://blog.virtahealth.com/potassium-sodium-ketogenic-diet/

I invite you to Follow my Blog, Facebook or be added to my email distribution list. My focus is to maximize my physical performance and mental clarity, body composition, and most importantly overall health with a wholesome diet and exercise.

I will bring you compelling articles on Ketogenic and GAPS diets, the Super Slow High-Intensity Exercise Program and supplements.

To follow my Blog, please click the Follow button to receive an email when the next posting is available. Hint: You may have to click the Accept and Close button before follow is available.

I thrive on feedback. Please let me know you are interested in the content by clicking Like, Commenting or sending me a message or email about the Post.

If you wish to contact me by Email, please email lpolstra@bell.net using this form.

May you Live Long Healthy.

Yours truly,

Lydia Polstra

Email: lpolstra@bell.net

Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/2healthyhabits/

Blog: https://2healthyhabits.wordpress.com

Disclaimer: The content of this email or Post is not intended for the treatment or prevention of disease, nor as a substitute for medical treatment, nor as an alternative to medical advice. Use of recommendations is at the choice and risk of the reader.