Why We Don’t Need Carbohydrates

Myth 1:  The human brain burns 600 kcal per day glucose to meet its energy needs.

Myth 2:  No one can follow a ketogenic diet long term.

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The need for dietary carbohydrates is often a topic of misunderstanding and misinformation. Although some specific tissues in the body do have certain glucose requirements, these requirements are easily met by gluconeogenic sources within the body without the need for dietary carbohydrate intake. The fatigue, stress, impaired cognition and reduced performance that are often used to argue for the need for carbohydrate are more aptly attributable to improper implementation of a well-formulated ketogenic diet (WFKD), inadequate electrolyte replacement, and/or insufficient time for keto-adaptation. When used correctly, a ketogenic diet can be a safe and sustainable therapeutic tool as well as a means to help promote wellness and performance.

The specific topic that we want to address here is how both the brain and body can function as well – or even better – on a diet with little or no dietary carbohydrate compared to the typically promoted low fat, high carbohydrate ‘healthy diet.’

Published science has shown that ketones that are produced from either dietary fats or triglycerides stored in our adipose (fat) tissue reserves are an excellent fuel for the brain. Further, we now know that these ketones produced by the liver also have multiple beneficial effects on the heart, kidneys, and other organs that appear to translate into improved longevity.

Additionally, new research has highlighted that skeletal muscles, even those of competitive athletes, are not solely dependent on high dietary carbohydrate intake for glycogen replenishment and performance.

Ketones are a cleaner-burning fuel (i.e., producing fewer free-radicals) than glucose when used by the brain and other organs. The primary ketone beta-hydroxybutyrate (BOHB) can also function as a signal to activate genes that regulate our defenses against oxidative stress and inflammation.

The shifting they body’s energy source from carbohydrates to fats, which we have named ‘keto-adaptation,’ starts within days but takes a considerable period of time to fully develop. The result is maintenance of normal blood glucose and muscle glycogen levels that can be sustained without the need for dietary carbohydrate intake.

Physiologic Role of Carbohydrates

The presumed requirement for glucose by the brain is a conditional need that is based on the fuel sources dictated by one’s choice of diet. A ketone-suppressing diet (i.e., any diet supplying >30% of energy from the combined intakes of carbohydrate and protein) essentially forces the brain to rely on glucose for fuel.

It is true that some cells within the body do require glucose. But in all of these cases where glucose is broken down to lactate, the body can recycle that lactate back to glucose.

Evidence That the Brain Can Function on Ketones

The simplest experiment that demonstrates the brain’s ability to function on ketones is the observation that humans can tolerate total fasting with normal mental function for durations of 30-60 days. Elegantly done studies that measured glucose and ketone levels in arterial blood going into the brain compared to these fuels in the jugular vein coming out of the brain, indicated that ketones are in fact able to supply the great majority of the brain’s energy.

See the original Virta post for the studies.

What these studies demonstrated is clear evidence of normal brain function in the virtual absence of glucose when sufficient ketones are available. This offers us the unique perspective that when consuming a carbohydrate-rich diet the predominate source of fuel for the brain is glucose; not because it is needed but because the other natural and highly effective brain energy source has been shut off.Butunder conditions of consistent nutritional ketosis, the brain adapts to the presence of ketones by enhancing their uptake and oxidation, thus protecting cognitive and CNS (central nervous system) function.

Essentials of Keto-Adaptation – Glucose Conservation and Salvage

Just because one doesn’t consume dietary carbohydrate does not mean the body is completely lacking in glucose. Whether fasting or on a meat-and-fat-only ketogenic diet, blood glucose values remain in the normal range both at rest and during exercise. This occurs because the body is quite capable of synthesizing all of the glucose it needs from various gluconeogenic precursors, while at the same time strictly limiting its rate of carbohydrate oxidation.

There are at least five sources of these glucose precursors:

  1. breakdown of muscle to supply amino acids for gluconeogenesis;
  2. breakdown of dietary protein to supply amino acids for gluconeogenesis,
  3. glycerol released from the hydrolysis of adipose tissue triglyceride or dietary triglyceride;
  4. recycling lactate and pyruvate from glycolysis; and
  5. acetone produced by the spontaneous breakdown of acetoacetate to acetone that can be used for gluconeogenesis.

The conditions for and the amounts provided by these various sources of gluconeogenesis are shown in the following table.

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What this table clearly demonstrates is that whether during a total fast or a ketogenic diet without carbohydrate containing foods, new or recycled gluconeogenic substrates provide for the generation of anywhere from 100-200 g/d of glucose. Add to this up to 50 g/d of dietary carbohydrate as part of a WFKD, and it becomes clear why nutritional ketosis is well tolerated under a variety of challenging conditions.

Lessons from Low Carbohydrate Athletes

Dr. Volek’s group recruited 20 competitive ultra-runners, 10 of whom followed a traditional high carbohydrate diet and the other 10 had been following a ketogenic diet for at least 6 months.

After baseline testing, these runners were asked to do a 3-hour run at race-pace on a treadmill. Surprisingly, both groups had similar muscle glycogen levels before the run, and they also both mobilized similar amounts (about 80%) of their glycogen during 3 hours on the treadmill.

But almost 90% of ketogenic runner’s net energy use was from fat. This is an astonishing example of being able to maintain normal muscle glycogen while consuming very little carbohydrate.

Please refer to the original Virta post for 2 more in depth studies.

Why Some Experts Still Claim that We Need Dietary Carbohydrates

There are some other arguments used to support the idea that we need to consume carbohydrates above levels that facilitate nutritional ketosis.

Thyroid dysfunction:The blood level of the active thyroid hormone T3 typically falls by 30-40% in the first few weeks of a WFKD, but this is not accompanied by any signs or symptoms of clinical hypothyroidism. This change is due to a marked reduction in thyroid hormone resistance during nutritional ketosis, which can be eased with adequate electrolytes intake. Therefore, this is a healthy response and not a sign of endocrine dysfunction.

Sleep patterns are disturbed by a ketogenic diet. In our study we found that global sleep quality, sleep disturbances, and daytime dysfunction parameters all were significantly improved. In addition, the proportion of patients reporting poor sleep was significantly reduced after 1 year.

We need more dietary fiber than is possible on a ketogenic diet.What we point out in our blog post on fiber is that the production of BOHB can provide many-fold more SCFAs to the brain than a very high fiber diet combined with an optimized microbiome. Thus, the moderate level of fiber that one can achieve with a real-food WFKD should be more than adequate to maintain health.

To learn more, please see my Blog Post, Fiber and Colon Health On A Well-Formulated Ketogenic Diet https://2healthyhabits.wordpress.com/2019/03/08/fiber-and-colon-health-on-a-well-formulated-ketogenic-diet-new-insights-question-its-role-as-an-unconditional-requirement/

This Post has been condensed from the original Virta Post: Why Humans Don’t Need Dietary Carbohydrates to Thrive By Stephen Phinney, MD, PhD, Brooke Bailey, Ph.D Jeff Volek, PhD, RD https://blog.virtahealth.com/why-dont-need-dietary-carbohydrates/?fbclid=IwAR0gDnfRCWEimOQgsK8sCEY7-Rh5R6E5TyyISAOd3VbSj71OsKOEekmTTO0

I invite you to Follow my Blog, Facebook or be added to my email distribution list. My focus is to maximize my physical performance and mental clarity, body composition, and most importantly overall health with a wholesome diet and exercise.

I will bring you compelling articles on Ketogenic and GAPS diets, the Super Slow High-Intensity Exercise Program and supplements.

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May you Live Long Healthy.

Yours truly,

Lydia Polstra

416-428-5285

Email: lpolstra@bell.net

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Disclaimer: The content of this email or Post is not intended for the treatment or prevention of disease, nor as a substitute for medical treatment, nor as an alternative to medical advice. Use of recommendations is at the choice and risk of the reader.

Ten Defining Characteristics of a Well-Formulated Ketogenic Diet. Part One.

Today’s focus is on: Ten Defining Characteristics of a Well-Formulated Ketogenic Diet by Stephen Phinney, MD, PhD, Jeff Volek, PhD, RD

To promote a better understanding of what constitutes a well-formulated ketogenic diet, we have identified 10 key characteristics:

  1. Sustains nutritional ketosis
  2. Maintains or improves lean body mass and performance
  3. Effective electrolyte, mineral and hydration management
  4. Fat provides majority of dietary energy in all phases
  5. Counting calories is not necessary for success
  6. Totally or predominantly composed of ‘whole foods’
  7. Short-term very low-calorie diets should be avoided until proven effective in long term studies
  8. Contraindicated for chronic conditions unless a credible long-term maintenance phase has been demonstrated
  9. On going expert medical supervision required for medication management of chronic conditions (e.g., type 2 diabetes, hypertension)
  10. A well-formulated ketogenic diet does not necessarily adhere to traditional dietary guidelines

Note: This Post contains the first 5 characteristics. The remaining 5 will follow next week.

The short and long-term health benefits of nutritional ketosis (NK) include a reduction in hunger and cravings, reduced inflammation and improved insulin sensitivity. These benefits of NK predictably lead to improved metabolic health and major weight loss.

A thorough understanding of the proper composition and management of a well-formulated ketogenic diet (WFKD) is essential in order to achieve and sustain the benefits of nutritional ketosis. In the short-term, appropriate fluid and electrolyte/mineral intakes that match the unique requirements associated with keto-adaptation are necessary for optimum well-being and can markedly reduce or prevent symptoms of the so-called ‘keto-flu’. Getting and keeping this formulation ‘right’ for the individual is necessary to optimize and sustain metabolic health, disease reversal (e.g., type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome, hypertension), and major weight loss.

It is also important to keep in mind that for individuals who start out taking medication for a major disease like type 2 diabetes and/or hypertension, a WFKD is a powerful medical therapy which necessitates day-by-day medication management by an expert physician and team to prevent dangerous drug side-effects. We strongly recommend getting medical supervision before making any dietary changes, especially if you are on medications for blood sugar or blood pressure. A physician can help you safely adjust your medications so that they don’t drive your blood sugar or blood pressure too low. Both hypoglycemic (low blood sugar) and hypotensive (low blood pressure) episodes can be very dangerous.

Here are 10 necessary basic components to optimize the benefits of nutritional ketosis and to avoid the common pitfalls.

Defining Characteristic #1: A WFKD must result in sustained nutritional ketosis.

  • Due to individual variations in carbohydrate tolerance, total daily carb intake can range from nearly 0 to 70 g/d.
  • Since beta-hydroxybutyrate (BOHB) functions as both a fuel and regulatory signal, we have defined nutritional ketosis as an average serum BOHB concentration in the range between 0.5 mM and 4.0 mM as measured by a finger stick glucometer with a ketone testing.
  • Despite its reduced carbohydrate content, food needs to be tastefully prepared with adequate variety so as to be palatable and sustainable.

Defining Characteristic #2: A WFKD has to provide adequate macronutrients to preserve lean body mass and function.

  • Effective protein intakes can range from 1.2 to 2.0 g/kg-d reference weight, where reference weight is based upon sex-based standard values for height. See my Blog 2healthyhabits for Dr. Phinney’s protein recommendations https://2healthyhabits.wordpress.com/2018/11/09/how-much-protein-do-you-need-in-nutritional-ketosis/
  • In this protein dose range, the addition of dietary carbohydrate is not necessary to maintain lean body mass.
  • The combination of both carbohydrate and protein intakes at the upper ends of an individual’s tolerance range typically drives ketones down out of the NK range, particularly for those with underlying insulin resistance. For this reason, the best practice of a WFKD typically requires holding protein in moderation and adding just enough dietary carbohydrate to allow dietary variety and provide valuable micro-nutrients and minerals from vegetables, nuts/seeds, and berry fruit.

Defining Characteristic #3: A WFKD contains enough electrolytes and intercellular minerals to maintain optimum circulatory, muscle, and nerve functions.

  • Adequate sodium and potassium are provided to support circulatory volume and avoid potassium depletion resulting in impaired muscle anabolism (building up process)or adrenal stress.
  • Accelerated renal sodium excretion associated with nutritional ketosis raises the typical adult daily sodium intake requirement to 4 – 5 g/d with exceptions for those taking medications for hypertension or congestive heart failure.
  • Magnesium depletion signs/symptoms such as muscle cramps, muscle fasciculations (flicker under the skin),and persistent hypokalemia (deficiency of potassium)are common in adults due to poor dietary intake combined with medication and/or alcohol effects on renal excretion.
  • Magnesium intake often needs to be increased by food choices or supplementation to normalize neuromuscular and cardiac functions as well as lean body mass preservation independent of dietary protein adequacy.

Defining Characteristic #4: In all phases of a WFKD, the majority of daily energy intake will come from dietary fat.

    Example:

     Induction  = 80-120 g/d protein, 30-50 g/d carb, 60-100 g/d fat

     Maintenance        = 80-120 g/d protein, 30-70 g/d carb, 100-200 g/d fat

  • In all phases, the majority of fat needs to come from mono-unsaturated and saturated sources from the foods themselves or as added natural fats.
  • Adequate omega-6 essential fats are obtained from whole food vegetable and animal/vegetable protein sources. Omega-6 rich vegetable oil sources should be routinely avoided whenever possible.
  • As weight loss stabilizes and glycemic control typically improves over the first year of a well-formulated ketogenic diet, it may be possible to add a small amount of additional (unprocessed)carbohydrates back into the diet while still maintaining nutritional ketosis.
  • Protein remains relatively constant over this time, while fat intake may increase to meet caloric needs.

This graph, Daily caloric intake and expenditure, illustrates a typical physiological weight loss response to a well-formulated ketogenic diet eaten to satiety rather than when prescribed as a rigid caloric restriction. Note that in this scenario, dietary protein is moderate and unchanged, carbohydrate is held constant or only slightly increased in a narrow range, and one’s spontaneous intake of fat increases to sustain satiety as major weight loss transitions into weight maintenance.

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In insulin resistant adults, carbs are initially limited to 30 grams per day, then liberalized slowly while maintaining ketosis.

Daily protein prescribed in a range between 1.2 and 2.0g/kg reference weight (approx. 15% daily expenditure).  Fat is consumed to satiety.

Defining Characteristic #5: Counting or restricting calories is not necessary for lasting success.

  • While many “diets” restrict calories in order to get results, a well-formulated ketogenic diet allows the individual to eat fat to satiety and still lose weight and improve metabolic health.
  • Calorie counting is not essential; however, individuals must be mindful not to eat past satiety or purposefully consume fats in excess of energy needs in an effort to increase ketone values.
  • For many people who have spent a lifetime eating a fat-restricted diet, which promotes inflammation and inhibits satiety, experiencing the prompt sense of having eaten enough (i.e., satiety, not fullness) that occurs with nutritional ketosis can be a new experience.

Note: This Post contains the first 5 characteristics. The remaining 5 will follow next week.

SOURCE: The Ten Defining Characteristics of a Well-Formulated Ketogenic Diet

Stephen Phinney, MD, PhD, Jeff Volek, PhD, RD on August 13, 2018. This post has been condensed from the original Virta Post.

https://blog.virtahealth.com/well-formulated-ketogenic-diet/

I invite you to Follow my Blog, Facebook or be added to my email distribution list. My focus is to maximize my physical performance and mental clarity, body composition, and most importantly overall health with a wholesome diet and exercise.

I will bring you compelling articles on Ketogenic and GAPS diets, the Super Slow High-Intensity Exercise Program and supplements.

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May you Live Long Healthy.

Yours truly,

Lydia Polstra

416-428-5285

Email: lpolstra@bell.net

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Disclaimer: The content of this email or Post is not intended for the treatment or prevention of disease, nor as a substitute for medical treatment, nor as an alternative to medical advice. Use of recommendations is at the choice and risk of the reader.

Fiber and Colon Health On A Well-Formulated Ketogenic Diet: New Insights Question Its Role As An Unconditional Requirement

I have wondered about the role of fiber. I found it hard to get enough in my diet. As I have learned from this article, as long as I am in nutritional ketosis I should not worry.

There are a few dietary recommendations that have been so ingrained in our minds that we accept them without question. The need for dietary fiber and the proposed benefits of a high fiber diet seem to be two of these.

Adults are generally encouraged to consume at least 25 to 30 grams of fiber per day. A well-formulated ketogenic diet (WFKD), while necessarily restricted in its carbohydrate content, can include several classes of foods that provide fiber (e.g., vegetables, seeds, nuts), but on average may only provide about half this amount.

However, the nutritional ketosis resulting from a WFKD causes the liver to produce beta-hydroxybutyrate (BOHB), and BOHB has the potential to replace some of the functions of dietary fiber. Many of the benefits of fiber are attributable to its fermentation by bacteria, which produce short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) in the colon, especially one called butyrate. SCFA has metabolic properties that are very similar to those of BOHB. Therefore, a well-formulated ketogenic diet may provide many of the benefits of fiber, without a high carbohydrate intake.

Snapshot: Two Pathways to Colonic Fuel and Health

Health - Fiber and Colon Health - Blog picture.png

Followers of a Western Diet depend upon fiber to produce butyrate. Butyrate is a preferred fuel to nourish the cells lining the large intestine (colon).

We now know that a ketogenic diet can induce the liver to produce anywhere between 75 to 150 grams of beta-hydroxybutyrate (BOHB) every day. Both butyrate and BOHB can be used by mitochondria as an efficient fuel, and both have anti-inflammatory and epigenetic effects.However, in this inflammation-modulating role, BOHB is more potent.

So, here’s our (Drs. Phinney and Volek) hypothesis: while high dietary fiber plus an optimum microbiome is critical to one’s health when eating a Western diet, this less important for the ketogenic diet.  This is because adequate dietary carbohydrate restriction can induce the liver to produce many-fold more grams of BOHB than one could produce as butyrate via colonic fermentation. Thus, the keto-adapted individual might still be able to function without the need for as much fiber.

Strong biochemical evidence indicates that many of the benefits of fiber fermentation in the colon can be replaced by the normal physiological production of BOHB by the liver during a well-formulated ketogenic diet.

What is Fiber?    Fiber is composed of various components of plants such as vegetables, grains, legumes, nuts, and fruits that are neither digested nor absorbed in the small intestine but are fermented by bacteria in the colon.

Fiber is often further separated into two categories:

Soluble (absorbs water, increases stool bulk, prone to fermentation)

Insoluble (promotes motility, less prone to fermentation)

Soluble fiber plays a supporting role in colon health, but only if one has an optimized microbiome that produces butyrate. Fiber primarily facilitates the production of SCFAs like butyrate, they are the real stars of the show.

Short-Chain Fatty Acids:       Three SCFAs – acetate, propionate and butyrate – are produced in the intestinal lumen by bacterial fermentation of dietary fiber. Butyrate provides many of the health-promoting effects associated with colonic fermentation of fiber.

Butyrate acts as a histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor. HDACs are enzymes that regulate specific genes and can help reduce unwanted cell growth and oxidative stress. BOHB is also an HDAC inhibitor. Both butyrate and BOHB bind to the same cell surface receptor in the colon, which means they can have similar tumor suppressing effects upon binding. This is likely one of the underlying mechanisms by which fiber intake is understood to contribute to a reduction in the incidence of colon cancer.

The Influence of Fiber on Components of Health:   Some of the benefits that have been attributed to fiber including: improved gut health and motility, reduced risk of Cardiovascular disease (CVD), improved glycemia and insulin sensitivity, as well as help with weight control. Fiber contributes to these aspects through the action of butyrate.

While fiber is thought to increase gut motility and ease of bowel movements, (butyrate regulates fluid and mineral balance) the effect of minerals like magnesium and sodium, as well as hydration status, cannot be overstated. Stool water content significantly effects motility. This is especially true for those on a WFKD. Careful attention to magnesium, sodium and fluid intakes can improve constipation.

Cardiovascular Health.    When we look more closely at the effect of fiber on coronary heart disease (CHD), we need to consider factors such as increased SCFA production and decreased caloric intake, as well as increased antioxidants, vitamins and minerals. These factors are known to influence inflammation, which is increasingly acknowledged to be a driver in the development of CHD. In fact, a sustainable diet that reduces inflammation may prove to be more beneficial for cardiovascular health than fiber.

Type 2 Diabetes and Weight Control.   Most well-designed studies have not shown significant, sustained weight reduction that is attributable to fiber in individuals consuming high fiber real-foods.

Interestingly, individuals with Type 2 Diabetes (T2D) have fewer butyrate-producing bacteria in their gut, suggesting a potential protective role of butyrate in this disease. Based on current evidence, it is difficult to attribute a significant impact in improving T2D to fiber alone.

Gut Microbiome.  It has been shown that diet can dramatically alter the content of the gut microbiota and the microbiome can affect your health in general.

The gut microbiota is also a potential factor in obesity and T2D as well as auto-immune diseases and other conditions. Therefore, as we continue to learn more about the role the microbiome plays in the modulation of health and disease, we will learn how the composition of the diet can influence these outcomes.

Dietary Fiber in the Context of a Ketogenic Diet.    As we look at the proposed benefits of fiber, we can see that for those individuals who are on a WFKD, many of these positive effects are also achieved. We want to emphasize that butyrate appears to be the powerful actor behind fiber. Thus, in the context of a WFKD, the internal production of BOHB by the liver can reduce or eliminate the need for butyrate to achieve the desired health outcomes.

As a result, the need for a high dietary fiber intake may in fact be conditional and based upon the overall and consistent composition of the diet. If an individual is in nutritional ketosis, it may not be necessary to consume a high fiber diet (>25g per day) to achieve the health effects attributed to fiber.

Source:  Stephen Phinney, MD, PhD Brooke Bailey, Ph.D Jeff Volek, PhD, RD on March 4, 2019

https://blog.virtahealth.com/fiber-colon-health-ketogenic-diet/?fbclid=IwAR3nlSJDbnDJr2Aj47DyNzmVYNwoocy49xoYvElXHP8r8cigs2u65z6m0u8

I invite you to Follow my Blog, Facebook or be added to my email distribution list. My focus is to maximize my physical performance and mental clarity, body composition, and most importantly overall health with a wholesome diet and exercise.

I will bring you compelling articles on Ketogenic and GAPS diets, the Super Slow High-Intensity Exercise Program and supplements.

To follow my Blog, please click the Follow button to receive an email when the next posting is available. Hint: You may have to click the Accept and Close button before follow is available.

I thrive on feedback. Please let me know you are interested in the content by clicking Like, Commenting or sending me a message or email about the Post.

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May you Live Long Healthy.

Yours truly,

Lydia Polstra

416-428-5285

Email: lpolstra@bell.net

Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/2healthyhabits/

Blog: https://2healthyhabits.wordpress.com

Disclaimer: The content of this email or Post is not intended for the treatment or prevention of disease, nor as a substitute for medical treatment, nor as an alternative to medical advice. Use of recommendations is at the choice and risk of the reader.

Dr. Phinney, a leading expert on the Ketogenic diet, explains the Science Behind Ketosis.

I went looking for recent information on nutritional ketosis. What I found was easy to understand videos presented by one of the leading experts on the Ketogenic diet.

Expert Qualifications:Dr. Stephen Phinney is the Chief Medical Officer and Co-Founder of Virta Health, the first clinically-proven treatment to safely and sustainably reverse type 2 diabetes without medications or surgery.

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Dr. Phinney is a physician-scientist with 40 years of experience divided between academic internal medicine and industry. He has studied nutritional biochemistry as well as low carbohydrate research and its benefits for physical performance and insulin sensitivity.

His career has emphasized the interaction between diet and exercise and their effects on obesity, body composition, physical performance, and cellular membrane structure.

His extensive experience in the design of clinical nutrition trials in both academic and industrial settings has led to more than 87 peer-reviewed papers and book chapters on clinical nutrition and biochemistry.

He is the author of four books, including The Art and Science of Low Carbohydrate Living and The Art and Science of Low Carbohydrate Performance, two foundational books on low carb nutrition science and nutritional ketosis that he co-authored with Jeff Volek, Ph.D, RD. Dr. Phinney also previously served on the editorial board of the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition.

Dr. Phinney received his medical degree from Stanford University, holds a Doctorate in nutritional biochemistry and metabolism from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and completed post-doctoral research at Harvard University.

The Video Series:

Dr. Stephen Phinney put together a three-part video series on ketogenic diets and nutritional ketosis. You’ll learn the nutrition science behind ketosis and what the research shows regarding its safety and benefits (including if and when you should obtain medical supervision), and how to troubleshoot your eating plan to optimize your ketogenic diet.

The videos can be found at: https://blog.virtahealth.com/dr-stephen-phinney-ketosis-ketogenic-diets/  If the Link does not work, please copy and paste it into your address bar.

PART ONE:  Dr. Stephen Phinney on Nutritional Ketosis and Ketogenic Diets

Stephen Phinney, MD, Ph.D, explains the science of nutritional ketosis, a natural metabolic state in which your body is fueled mainly by fats and ketones, instead of carbohydrates (glucose).

Part 1-2.pngThe healthy blood ketosis range is .1 to 3, which is not close to Keto-acidosis range of 10-20 millimolar.

Part 1-3.png

PART TWO:  Dr. Stephen Phinney on the Safety and Benefits of a Ketogenic Diet

Stephen Phinney, MD, Ph.D, explains the benefits of a ketogenic diet and the research on the safety of this dietary approach.

Part 2-1.png

PART THREE:  Dr. Stephen Phinney on Problem Solving a Ketogenic Diet

Are your ketones consistently low? Have a headache? Having trouble figuring out your macros? Stephen Phinney, MD, Ph.D, explains 5 common mistakes people make on a ketogenic diet—and how to fix them.

Part 3-1.png

This is not a high protein diet.

Protein for the well-formulated Ketogenic diet is in the 15 to 20 per cent range whereas the standard American diet is in the 45 to 55 per cent range.

Part 3-2.png

Typical menu for a man of Dr. Phinney size, lean and 6 foot tall.

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Weight loss in Keto-adaption phase vs. maintenance phase.

The Ketogenic recommends a daily intake of 20 to 50 grams of Carbohydrates (high fiber vegetables). This is not a high protein diet. It recommends 15 to 20 per cent of the daily calorie intake should be protein. The best proteins are from free-range animals in the form of eggs, poultry, beef, pork and mercury-free fish.  Health fats like avocado, cold-pressed olive oil and coconut oil, and nuts and seeds are eaten until you are satisfied.

If you are in the Keto-adaption fat loss phase, reduce the fat in your daily intake. In the pie chart above, the purple is your body fat, the green is fat coming from your daily intake. In this phase, the fat that is burned is from your body fat!

To learn more please read the book the Dr. Phinney co-authored with Dr. Volek.

New Atkins for a New You: The Ultimate Diet for Shedding Weight and Feeling Great Paperback – Mar 2 2010

Disclaimer: The content of this email or Post is not intended for the treatment or prevention of disease, nor as a substitute for medical treatment, nor as an alternative to medical advice. Use of recommendations is at the choice and risk of the reader.

Please consider visiting Lydia’s Blog https://2healthyhabits.wordpress.com

It will be the same posting that I email, but you can search the Blog using key words. In the Blog I discuss the Ketogenic and GAPS (for gut health) diets, supplements and Super-slow High Resistance Training.

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As always, I am interested in your thoughts on these topics.

May you Live Long Healthy.

Yours truly,

Lydia Polstra

lpolstra@bell.net